The origins of the blues are undocumented, though they can be seen as the secular counterpart of the spirituals. However, as Gerhard Kubik points out, whereas the spirituals are homophonic, rural blues and early jazz “was largely primarily based on ideas of heterophony.” When male jazz musicians were drafted during World War II, many all-female bands changed them.
Hard bop was developed in the mid-Fifties, coalescing in 1953 and 1954; it developed partly in response to the vogue for cool jazz in the early Nineteen Fifties and paralleled the rise of rhythm and blues. Miles Davis’ 1954 efficiency of “Walkin'” on the first Newport Jazz Festival announced the type to the jazz world. The quintet Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers, led by Blakey and featuring pianist Horace Silver and trumpeter Clifford Brown, were leaders in the hard bop movement with Davis. Since bebop was meant to be listened to, … Read More